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November 2, at 5: FakeAgent Skinny waitress sucks and fucks in Xmas Casting. Only one flag request every ten seconds is allowed. January 12, at 9: The principal use of Polar Bears is for subsistence purposes Obbard et al. The PBSG has reiterated that all management actions be based on the best scientific information.

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Phipps first described the Polar Bear as a distinct species and named it Ursus maritimus. Other names were suggested including Thalassarctos, Thalarctos, and Thalatarctos. Erdbrink and Thenius ultimately settled on Ursus Thalarctos maritimus because of interbreeding between Porn polar Bears Ursus arctos and Polar Bears in zoos.

Polar Bears live throughout the ice-covered waters of the circumpolar Arctic Obbard et al. Although some occur in the permanent multi-year pack ice of the central Arctic basin, they are most common in the annual ice over the continental shelf and inter-island archipelagos that surround the polar basin. Polar Bears that have porn polar access to sea ice are able to hunt throughout the year.

Also, vagrants occasionally reach Iceland. Thalarctos maritimus Phipps, English Download assessment Download supplementary material, porn polar. Ursus maritimus Phipps, Loss of Arctic sea porn polar due to climate change is the most serious threat to Polar Bears throughout their circumpolar range Obbard et al. We performed a data-based sensitivity analysis with respect to this threat by evaluating the potential response of the global Polar Bear population to projected sea-ice conditions.

Our analyses included a comprehensive assessment of generation length GL for Polar Bears; development of a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat characteristics for the species; and population projections, over three Polar Bear generations, porn polar, using computer simulation and statistical models representing alternative relationships between sea ice and Polar Bear abundance. Our analyses highlight the potential for large reductions in the global Polar Bear population if sea-ice loss continues, which is forecast by climate models and other studies IPCC Our analyses also highlight the large amount of uncertainty in statistical projections of Polar Bear abundance and the sensitivity of projections to plausible alternative assumptions.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List Guidelines suggests that assessors consider nearly the full range of uncertainty in potential outcomes, and adopt a precautionary but realistic attitude toward risk tolerance Section 3. Click here to open the map viewer and explore range. Genetic studies have shown that gene flow occurs among the various subpopulations Paetkau et al.

Although demographic exchange may be limited between subpopulations Mauritzen et al. Ongoing reductions in the duration, distribution, and quality of sea ice due to climate change Sahanatien and Derocher may result in different levels of genetic and demographic exchange among subpopulations in the future Derocher et al. The type, precision, and time span of data used to estimate trends varies among subpopulations PBSG Estimating Polar Porn polar abundance is expensive and difficult because the animals often occur at low densities in remote habitats.

Although abundance estimates have generally improved in recent decades Obbard et al. We note that this number differs from what would be obtained by summing abundance estimates in Porn polarbecause criteria were not the same for including abundance estimates in the two sources section Population projections. The total number presented here does not include the Arctic Basin subpopulation, for which no information on abundance is available. The mixed quality and even lack of available information on each subpopulation means caution is warranted when establishing and reporting a single estimate of the number of polar bears across the circumpolar Porn polar.

Therefore we used the abundance data in Table 3 in a relative manner, to scale subpopulation-specific changes to changes in the global population size, rather than in an absolute manner. Polar Bears occur at low densities throughout the circumpolar Arctic and are more abundant in shallower, ice-covered waters associated with the continental shelf where currents or upwellings increase biological productivity.

Seasonally, in the summer open water season, Polar Bears may be found on land in higher densities. The Polar Bear is a K-selected species with late sexual maturity, small litter size, high maternal investment and high adult survival, porn polar.

Females generally mature at years, and enter a prolonged oestrus between late March and early June, although most mating occurs in April and early May. Ovulation is induced by mating Stirlingand implantation is delayed until autumn. The total gestation period ranges between days UspenskiAmstrup Whether or not the embryo implants and proceeds to develop is likely determined by body condition.

Pregnant females enter dens in snow drifts or slopes on land, close to the sea Andersen et al. Females give birth inside the den, usually in late December to early January Derocher et al.

Polar Bears most often give birth to twin cubs; singleton and triplet litters are less frequent, porn polar. Newborn Polar Bears are blind, sparsely haired and weigh approximately 0. In some regions, after emerging from the den, the female may not have fed for a period up to 8 months, which may porn polar the longest period of food deprivation for any mammal Watts and Hansen Cub mortality is high in the first year LarsenAmstrup and DurnerWiigwith the probability of cub survival largely determined by maternal condition.

Mothers with larger fat stores in the fall emerge in the spring with larger cubs which are more likely to survive Atkinson and RamsayDerocher and StirlingRobbins et al. In contrast to their low reproductive rates, adult Polar Bears have high survival rates Obbard et al. Polar Bears are the most carnivorous of the extant species of bears. Throughout their range, Ringed Seals Phoca hispidapreferably young-of-the-year, and to a lesser extent Bearded Seals Erignathus barbatus are their primary prey Derocher et al.

In some areas they are also known to take Harp Seals Pagophilus groenlandicusHooded Seals Cystophora cristataand even larger species such as Walrus Odobenus rosmarus and Beluga Delphinapterus leucas Thiemann et al. Polar Bears digest fat more efficiently than protein Best Polar Bears are large when compared to other ursid species, which is a consequence of their energy-rich diet.

Although birds, fish, vegetation and kelp are eaten where locally available during the ice free-season PedersenRussellDyck and RombergBorn et al. The principal use of Polar Bears is for subsistence purposes Obbard et al. Whole hides may be used for subsistence needs, kept as trophies, or sold on open markets. The financial return from the sale of legally taken Polar Bear hides can provide important income for local people in Canada and Greenland.

Sport hunting of Polar Bears only occurs in Canada and must be guided by local Inuit hunters. While communities can decide whether or not to allow sport hunts, these hunts must be accounted for within the annual quota assigned to a community; sport hunts are not additive to the quota.

Sport hunting can be a major source of income for remote settlements because the financial return from the hunt greatly exceeds that of the hide value Foote and Wenzel This often provides porn polar important infusion into local, cash limited, economies. The harvest level has been thought to be sustainable in most subpopulations PBSG Although poaching, or illegal hunting of Polar Bears, is not thought to be of major concern, recent reports suggest that illegal hunting in eastern Russia may be as high as bears per year Kochnev At present, the PBSG is assessing the status of this problem in all jurisdictions.

Polar Bear based tourism, including public viewing and photography is increasing. Well established in Churchill, Canada, it is increasing in other remote areas, including Svalbard, Norway, and to a some extent in locations on the north coast of Alaska primarily Kaktovik and to a lesser degree Barrow, porn polar. Polar Bear products are in trade. The range of different products and units of measure used in records makes it difficult to relate trade data to number of polar bears in trade.

Export of Polar Bear products from Canada, where most polar bear products in trade originate, represented between and individuals in the period Canadian CITES authorities pers. Greenland introduced a voluntary temporary ban on export of Polar Bear products in Anthropogenic and natural changes in Arctic environments, as well as recognition of the shortcomings of our knowledge of Polar Bear ecology, are increasing the challenges for Polar Bear conservation and management.

Higher ambient temperatures and erratic weather fluctuations, porn polar, symptoms of anthropogenic climate change, are increasing across the range of polar bears. Polar Bears are dependent upon Arctic sea ice for access to their prey. Their dependence on an ephemeral habitat that exists as a function of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures means that climate warming poses the single most important threat to the long-term persistence of Polar Bears Obbard et al.

Arctic sea ice loss has thus far progressed faster than most climate models have predicted Stroeve et al. Because changes in sea-ice are known to alter Polar Bear abundance, productivity, body condition, and distribution Stirling et al. Arctic sea ice extent is linearly related to global mean temperature, which in turn, is directly related to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations Amstrup et al.

Population and habitat models predict substantial declines in the distribution and abundance of Polar Bears in the future Durner et al. Although Polar Bears living in historically colder regions of the Arctic might derive transient benefit from a climate-driven transition away from multi-year ice Derocher et al. In other parts of the Arctic, porn polar, the 5-month ice-free threshold may be reached by the middle of the 21 st century Atwood et al, porn polar.

Nevertheless, uncertainty and regional variability in the near-term effects of climate change must be included in Polar Bear management and conservation plans. Although there have been local and regional studies on polar bear denning habitat Kolenosky and PrevettMessier et al.

It is also unknown how climate change will change denning locations and habitats, though predicted increases in forest fires may have adverse effects on maternity denning habitat in sub-Arctic porn polar Richardson et al.

Declining sea ice availability can impair the ability of pregnant females to reach traditional denning areas Derocher et al. The occurrence of diseases and parasites in Polar Bears is rare compared with occurrences in other ursids. As a result, the potential for exposure to pathogens and resulting disease strangle porn may bloemfontein porn more significant threats as Polar Bears experience the cumulative effects of multiple stressors Patyk et al.

The warming climate has been associated with an increase in pathogens in other Arctic marine and terrestrial organisms. Parasitic agents that have developmental stages outside the bodies of warm-blooded hosts e. Improved conditions for such parasites have already adversely affected the health of some Arctic mammals Kutz et al.

Bacterial parasites also are likely to benefit from a warmer and wetter Arctic e. Because of the previous limited exposure of Polar Bears to diseases and parasites Fagre et al. Many different pathogens have been found in seal species that are Polar Bear prey; the potential therefore exists for transmission of these diseases to Polar Bears Kirk et al, porn polar.

If Polar Bears become nutritionally stressed, altered foraging behaviours such as increased feeding on the internal organs of their primary prey and use of alternative foods e.

Ensuring the long-term persistence of Polar Bears will necessitate understanding how a rapidly changing physical environment modulates exposure to disease risk factors and, ultimately, population health.

Persistent organic pollutants, which reach Arctic regions via long range transport by air and ocean currents as well as river run off, also increase uncertainty for the welfare of polar bears Obbard et al. Although Polar Bears live in relatively pristine Arctic regions, a variety of industrial toxic substances are brought into Polar Bear management areas from human anthropogenic activities around the world. Polar Bears are apex predators and are therefore exposed to high levels of pollutants, which magnify with each step in the food web resulting in high concentrations in polar bear tissue Letcher et al.

A key characteristic of these pollutants is that they persist in the environment due to low biotic and abiotic degradation. The contaminant burdens among Polar Bears are known to vary among regions e. However, porn polar, Dietz et al. Many of the contaminants are lipophilic and bond tightly to lipophilic tissues. Polar Bears are particularly vulnerable to organochlorines because they eat a fat rich diet. Ringed, bearded, and harp seals comprise the main food of Polar Bears and the blubber layer is preferentially eaten by the bears and porn polar, the intake of pollutants is high Letcher et al.

Recent studies have documented new pollutants in polar bear tissues which expose the species to even more toxic and complex combination of industrial chemicals Verreault et al. Although the effects of pollutants on polar bears are only partially understood, levels of such pollutants in some subpopulations are already sufficiently high that they may interfere with hormone regulation, immune system function, and possibly reproduction Wiig et al.

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